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By: Saurabh PV

How to Set Default Values to Fields in Odoo 13

Technical Odoo 13

In Odoo, sometimes we face the need to set a specific value for a field by default every time we create a record of that model. It can be achieved by mainly two methods.

1. Passing value through kwargs
2. Setting value with default_get function

1)  Passing value through kwargs

A field in Odoo has multiple kwargs namely string, read-only, required, etc. Among one of them is the kwarg called default.
We can pass a value through default kwarg in two ways
        * Set the value directly
        * Execute a function and return the value

- We can set the default value directly by assigning the value to kwarg like this

state = fields.Selection([
    ('draft', 'Quotation'),
    ('sent', 'Quotation Sent'),
    ('sale', 'Sales Order'),
    ('done', 'Locked'),
    ('cancel', 'Cancelled'),
    ], string='Status', readonly=True, copy=False, index=True, tracking=3, default='draft')

This is the code for the state of sale.order model, here default is set as ‘draft’, which is the Quotation state, so every time a new sale order is created, by default the state will be Quotation.

set-default-values-to-fields-odoo-13-cybrosys


- For returning a value from a function to kwarg, we can run an anonymous lambda function or write the function name to be called.


With lambda function: let's look at the ‘Salesperson’ field of sale.order


user_id = fields.Many2one(
   'res.users', string='Salesperson', index=True, tracking=2, default=lambda self: self.env.user,
    domain=lambda self: [('groups_id', 'in', self.env.ref('sales_team.group_sale_salesman').id)])


Here the currently logged in user is calculated with the lambda function lambda self: self.env.user and is set as the default Salesperson as shown below,


set-default-values-to-fields-odoo-13-cybrosys


With function call: To compute a default value through a function call, the function should be defined before the field is defined. For example, we will look at the code of the ‘Expiration’ field in sale.order model called validity_date.


First, the function is defined


def _default_validity_date(self):
    if self.env['ir.config_parameter'].sudo().get_param('sale.use_quotation_validity_days'):
        days = self.env.company.quotation_validity_days
        if days > 0:
            return fields.Date.to_string(datetime.now() + timedelta(days))
    return False


Then this function is called in the field definition,


validity_date = fields.Date(string='Expiration', readonly=True, copy=False, states={'draft': [('readonly', False)], 'sent': [('readonly', False)]},
                            default=_default_validity_date)


Here the _default_validity_date function takes the number that is set in the configuration and computer date with today and returns the value


set-default-values-to-fields-odoo-13-cybrosys


So when a new sale order is created, 30 days after today will be shown as default Expiration date as shown below


set-default-values-to-fields-odoo-13-cybrosys


2)  Setting value with default_get function


In this method, we can set and compute the default values of multiple fields by inheriting the default_get function and updating values into it.

Eg: Two custom fields are created in the sale order module, sales_person_contact and sales_person_email. We then set the default value of these as shown below


set-default-values-to-fields-odoo-13-cybrosys


So when you create a new sale order, these fields will be set by default like this


set-default-values-to-fields-odoo-13-cybrosys


These are the main methods of setting default values for fields in Odoo.


To know more about a similar topic on computed fields, Read Blog: How to add computed fields to a model in Odoo 13




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