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By: Afra MP

How to Apply Dynamic Domain for Relational Fields in Odoo 17

Technical Odoo 17 Odoo Enterprises Odoo Community

In Odoo 17, there are various scenarios where applying a domain for a relational field based on another field within the same model becomes necessary. This enables dynamic filtering of records based on specific conditions. While static domains based solely on comodel fields serve their purpose, they may not always suffice. This article delves into different approaches for implementing dynamic domains in Odoo 17, offering flexibility to tailor your application according to specific needs.

Method 1: Defining an Onchange Function

One way to apply a dynamic domain is by defining an onchange function that returns the domain based on a specific field's value. Let's take a look at an example to better understand this approach.
class EmployeeWing(models.Model):
    _name = 'employee.wing'
    _description = 'Employee Wing'
    department_id = fields.Many2one('hr.department', string='Department')
    responsible_person_id = fields.Many2one('hr.employee', related='department_id.manager_id')
    pick_from_dept = fields.Boolean('Dept Members Only')
    member_ids = fields.Many2many('hr.employee', string='Members')
    leader_id = fields.Many2one('hr.employee')
    alternate_id = fields.Many2one('hr.employee')
In this scenario, let's consider the need to implement a filter for members based on the 'Department Members Only' field. When 'Department Members Only' is set to true, the 'Members' field should restrict selection to employees from the specified department. Conversely, when it's false, all employees should be available for selection.
To achieve this, we can define an onchange function in the Python file:
def get_employees(self):
    if self.pick_from_dept:
        domain = [('department_id', '=', self.department_id.id)]
        domain = []
    return {'domain': {'member_ids': domain}}
In this onchange function, we check the value of the "pick_from_dept" field. If it's true, we set the domain to filter the "member_ids" field based on the selected department. If it's false, we set an empty domain, allowing all employees to be available for selection.

Method 2: Defining Domain Attributes in XML

Another way to apply a dynamic domain is by defining domain attributes directly in the XML file. This approach is particularly useful when you want to filter records based on the values of a specific field.
Let's consider a scenario where we need to choose a leader from the members selected in the "member_ids" field. We can use the onchange function to return the domain, but we can also define the domain attribute for the "leader_id" field in the XML file:
<field name="leader_id" domain="[('id', 'in', member_ids)]"/>
By specifying the domain attribute in the XML file, we can filter the "leader_id" field based on the selected members. This ensures that only the selected members are available for selection as leaders.

Method 3: Computing Possible Values for a Many2many Field

In certain cases, you may need to compute the possible values for a many2many field and apply a domain based on that field. This approach is useful when you want to filter records based on a related field that is not editable in the form.
Let's explore a related field for the responsible person - specifically, the manager of the department. Suppose we require an alternate person for the responsible role, which could be either the manager or the coach of the responsible person. Since the responsible person field is not editable, we cannot apply this domain using the onchange function.
 To address this, we can compute the potential values for the 'alternate_id' field and apply a domain based on that field. Initially, we define a new many2many field called 'alternate_ids' in the Python file:
alternate_ids = fields.Many2many('hr.employee', 'wing_alternate_rel', compute='compute_alternate_ids')
def compute_alternate_ids(self):
    for rec in self:
        rec.alternate_ids = False
        if rec.responsible_person_id:
            if rec.responsible_person_id.parent_id and rec.responsible_person_id.coach_id:
                rec.alternate_ids = (rec.responsible_person_id.parent_id.id, rec.responsible_person_id.coach_id.id)
In this example, we compute the possible values for the "alternate_ids" field based on the values of the responsible person's manager and coach. If the manager and coach exist, we set the "alternate_ids" field to contain their respective IDs.
Next, in the XML file, we apply the domain to the "alternate_id" field based on the computed values:
<field name="alternate_id" domain="[('id', 'in', alternate_ids)]"/>
<field name="alternate_ids" invisible="1"/>
By specifying the "alternate_ids" field as invisible, we hide it from the form view while still allowing it to be used for computing the domain.
In Odoo 17, applying dynamic domains for relational fields is essential to filter records based on specific conditions. By utilizing methods like defining an onchange function, defining domain attributes in XML, and computing possible values for many2many fields, you can achieve the desired flexibility and customization in your Odoo applications. Experiment with these methods to create powerful and dynamic applications that meet your business requirements.
Remember, the key to successfully applying dynamic domains is understanding the relationships between fields and leveraging the capabilities of Odoo's powerful ORM. With these techniques, you can build robust applications that provide a seamless user experience and deliver the precise functionality your users need.
So go ahead, explore the possibilities of dynamic domains in Odoo 17, and take your applications to the next level!
To read more about applying dynamic domain for relational fields in Odoo 16, refer to our blog How to Apply Dynamic Domain for Relational Fields in Odoo 16

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