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By: Abhin K

How to Create Owl Mixin in Odoo 17

Technical Odoo 17

Introduction

In the fast-paced realm of web development, where technologies evolve rapidly, the key to staying ahead lies not just in keeping pace but in mastering the craft of code organization and fostering reusability. In this dynamic landscape, developers seek tools that not only streamline their workflows but also elevate the overall structure and maintainability of their projects. One such formidable tool in this arsenal is the concept of mixins.
Mixins, akin to versatile building blocks, enable developers to encapsulate specific functionalities and seamlessly integrate them into various components. These reusable code snippets act as modular enhancements, fostering a paradigm of cleaner, more maintainable projects. Today, we embark on a journey to delve into the realm of mixins within the context of Owl.js, a framework inspired by React. By understanding and harnessing the power of mixins, developers can significantly enhance their ability to create flexible, scalable, and efficient web applications. So, let's unravel the intricacies of mixins in Owl.js and discover how they can be a transformative force in shaping the future of your development endeavors.

The Anatomy of Mixins in Owl.js

Mixins serve as powerful instruments in the orchestra of JavaScript frameworks, particularly in the case of Owl.js. In essence, they are modular and reusable fragments of code that act as augmentations for components, introducing additional functionalities or modifying existing behaviors. This concept stands as a testament to the philosophy of code reusability and maintainability that modern frameworks strive to embody.
Picture mixins as skillful artists, each contributing a unique stroke to the canvas of a component's functionality. Owl.js allows these artists to collaborate harmoniously, resulting in components that are not only modular but also adaptable and extensible. By incorporating mixins into the development process, Owl.js empowers developers to sculpt their components with precision, fostering a dynamic and responsive user interface.
In the upcoming sections, we'll venture into the practical aspects of creating and employing mixins in Owl.js, unraveling the intricacies of this approach and showcasing how it can be a game-changer in crafting web applications that are both robust and elegant. Let's embark on this exploration of mixins, unveiling the untapped potential they bring to the development landscape.
Creating a Simple Mixin
Let's start by creating a basic mixin

// someMixin.js
const { useState } = owl;
import { useService } from "@web/core/utils/hooks";
export function someMixin(owlComponent) {
  return class extends owlComponent {
    setup() {
      super.setup();
      this.orm = useService("orm");
      this.state = useState({ data: [] });
    }
    async searchReadModel(model, domain = [], fieldName = []) {
      this.state.data = await this.orm.searchRead(model, domain, fieldName);
    }
  };
}

In this example, we've defined a someMixin Component with a single method searchReadModel which adds the searchRead data to the data field in the state variable

Mixin Structure:

The someMixin function is designed to take an owlComponent as a parameter and returns a new class that extends the provided owlComponent.

This new class serves as an augmented version of the original component, incorporating additional functionality.

Setup Method Override:

The setup method is overridden within the mixin. This method is crucial in Owl.js components as it is used for initializing component-specific resources.

The overridden setup method begins by invoking the base setup method of the original owlComponent using super.setup().

Accessing ORM Service:

The mixin utilizes the useService hook from the @web/core/utils/hooks module to access the ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) service. This service is often used for database-related operations.

State Management:

The useState hook is employed to initialize the component's state. In this case, it sets up a data field within the state, initialized as an empty array.

Custom Method - searchReadModel:

The mixin introduces a custom asynchronous method named searchReadModel.

This method takes parameters such as the model to query, a domain for filtering, and fieldName for specifying fields to retrieve.

The method utilizes the ORM service to perform a searchRead operation, updating the component's state with the retrieved data.

Applying the Mixin

Now, let's apply this mixin to a hypothetical Owl.js component:

const { Component, onWillStart } = owl;
import { someMixin } from "./someMixin"
export class MyMainComponent extends someMixin(Component) {
    setup() {
        super.setup();
        onWillStart(() => this.searchReadModel("your.model"))
    }
}

Extending someMixin:

MyMainComponent extends the functionality of someMixin(Component). This means that MyMainComponent is a component that incorporates the features provided by both the base Component and the someMixin.

Setup Method Override:

The setup method is overridden in MyMainComponent.

The overridden setup method begins by invoking the base setup method of the someMixin-enhanced Component using super.setup().

Using onWillStart Lifecycle Hook:

The onWillStart method is a lifecycle hook in Owl.js that is triggered just before the component starts rendering.

In this context, the onWillStart method is utilized to execute a specific action: calling the searchReadModel method with the argument "your.model".

The searchReadModel method, as defined in the someMixin, performs a searchRead operation using the ORM service and updates the component's state with the retrieved data.

In summary, when an instance of MyMainComponent is created and starts its life cycle, the overridden setup method ensures that the searchReadModel method from the someMixin is invoked. This could be particularly useful for scenarios where you want to fetch data or perform specific actions just before the component starts rendering. The use of mixins and lifecycle hooks in this manner contributes to a modular and organized approach to component development in Owl.js.

Now, you can easily incorporate data fetching into any component:

Conclusion

Mixins in Owl.js offer a powerful way to enhance the reusability and maintainability of your components. By encapsulating specific functionalities in mixins, you can easily mix and match them across different parts of your application. This promotes a modular and clean codebase, making your development process smoother and more efficient. If you want to know more about Owl components in odoo, refer to our previous blogs.


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