Chapter 1 - Get Started with Accounting Basics

The process of reporting, documenting, illustrating, and summarizing financial data is referred to as accounting. An organization or business cannot function without accounting. It serves as the primary point of contact for all types of commercial dealings. Accounting has been refreshed over the years as a contained system for maintaining financial records and supporting an accountant's responsibilities. However, the continually changing business climate in the present day necessitates that business owners and accountants reevaluate their roles and duties. Accounting involves more than just creating financial reports and keeping track of books.

Significance of Accounting

Accounting, which is the systematic and thorough recording of a company's financial activities, is essential to its operation, including managing statutory compliance and tracking income-expenditure relationships. Additionally, gathering quantitative financial data is beneficial. The owners, management, investors, and even governments will gain from the accounting system. A company that succeeds needs a solid and well-established accounting and bookkeeping system.

The bookkeeping procedure serves as the foundation of the accounting system, which monitors a company's financial health. At the end of each fiscal year, statistics and information are reported in the form of a financial statement. Accounting is essential for assessing business performance effectively. Comparing accounts with prior years is simple. By maintaining a strong book of accounts, the accounting system also enables you to keep a careful eye on the cash flow. The account-keeping system also makes filing simple and ensures that you never break the law. In addition to all of these advantages, accounting data makes it simple to create a budget that will support a given business strategy. So that you can budget for your future ambitions in an efficient and productive manner. An organization can benefit from proper accounting by receiving the numerous financial reports needed to manage day-to-day operations.

The management of the budget, one of the most crucial components of an organization, will be incredibly easy if the accounting system is reliable. Making the proper company decisions will be aided by the accurate data you obtain from the financial accounts, which will lead to efficient administration and increased profitability.

Double Entry Bookkeeping System

A method of recording transactions in accounting is called double-entry bookkeeping. In this approach, the input is recorded as at least two accounts—debit and credit. The recorded debit and credit amounts in this system must be equal. This means that the total of the reported credits and debits must match. In order to register the transaction on both sides, the system will assist you. In this system, if a transaction takes place and has an effect on one account, an equivalent effect also takes place in the other account. The credit value will be recorded alongside the equivalent debit amount. The chart of accounts for the business will also include a list of the credited and debited accounts.

Let's use a sale that is confirmed for 50 dollars as an example to follow. Both the Income Account and the Receivable Account will be affected. As a result of the sale, the revenue of the company rises. Consequently, the income grows, and $50 is credited to the income account. As Assets grow, the receivable account is debited by $50. Whether an account should be credited or debited depends on the type of account.

The Hierarchy of Accounting

The cornerstone of future growth is finance. Therefore, as a business ruler, you should be concerned with the business or the firm's accounting hierarchy. Without taking the size and type of the business into consideration, the accounting hierarchy is quite significant.

All transactional information is correctly put into the corresponding ledgers in the general accounting system. The nature of a transaction determines how its information is recorded on both sides (the credit and debit sides of accounts). A hierarchy is then followed for general accounting.


Asset, Liability, Income, and Expense are the four categories of nature.

Natures Increasing Decreasing
Income & LiabilityCreditDebit
Expense & AssetDebitCredit

Some kinds of accounting systems refer to the accepted patterns of liability and income while adding "Equity" as an additional nature. The profit and loss report is impacted by all account groupings that fall within the category of income and expenses.



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